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# Arithmetic and Geometric Functions

Basic mathematical functions, as well as number field manipulation like truncation and rounding.

## Abs

Description Returns the absolute value of a number. Abs(-23.1) – returns 23.1.

## Acos

Description Returns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number. The input must be from -1 to 1.The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/Pi() or use the Degrees() function. Acos(-.231) – returns 1.80390168255052.

## Acosh

Description Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the given number. The input must be a real number greater than or equal to 1. Acosh(10) – returns 2.993223.

## Asin

Description Returns the arcsine of the given number in radians, in the range -Pi/2 to Pi/2. The input is the sine of the angle you want and must be in the range from -1 to 1. Asin(-0.5) – returns 0.5236.

## Asinh

Description Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. The input can be any real number. Ex. Asinh(-2.5) – returns -1.64723.

## Atan

Description Returns the arctangent, inverse tangent of a number. The input can be any real number.Atan returns an angle given in radians in the range -Pi/2 to Pi/2. Atan(1) – returns 0.785398 (pi/4).

## Atan2

Description Returns the angle from the x-axis to a line containing the origin (0, 0) and a point with coordinates (x,y). The input requires two values, the x and y coordinates. NoteIf both x and y = 0, Atan2() returns the error `#Div/0!`.A negative result represents a clockwise angle. Atan2(1, 1) – returns 0.785398 (pi/4).

## Atanh

Description Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. The input must be from -1 to 1. Atanh(.76159416) – returns 1 (approximately).

## Ceiling

Description Returns the number rounded up away from zero to the nearest multiple of significance, or the error `#VALUE!` if the argument is not a number. The input requires two values, the number to be rounded and the multiple of significance.Regardless of the sign of number, a value is rounded up when adjusted away from zero. Ceiling(4.42,.05) – returns 4.45.

## Cos

Description Returns the cosine, of an angle in radians. The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/Pi() or use the Degrees() function. Cos(1.047) – returns 0.500171.

## Cosh

Description Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. Cos(4) – returns 27.30823.

## Even

Description Returns a number rounded up to the nearest even integer, or the error message `#VALUE!` if the argument is not a number. Regardless of the sign of number, a value is rounded away from zero. Even(1.5) – returns 2.

## Exp

Description Returns e raised to the power of the input. Exp is the inverse of Ln, the natural logarithm. Exp(1) – returns 2.718282 (the approximate value of e).

## Fixed

Description Returns the first argument rounded to the number of decimal places specified in the second argument. Takes three arguments:1. The number you want to round. 2. The number of digits to the right of the decimal to include. 3. (Optional) TRUE/FALSE whether to omit commas. The default is FALSE (includes commas as normal). Fixed(1234.5678, 2) – returns 1,234.56.

## Floor

Description Rounds the number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance. The input requires two values, the number to be rounded, and the multiple of significance.Regardless of the sign of number, a value is down toward zero.NOTE. If the argument is non-numeric, then Floor returns the error #VALUE! Floor(2.6, .5) – returns 2.5.

## GlobalNumericFormat

Description Returns a numeric string value whose format is based on the session format. Only accepts numeric values as input. If Null(), DbNull() or a data field that is null is passed as the argument, the function returns Null(). GlobalNumericFormat({Region.Population})- returns the value based on the session format.

## Int

Description Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. The input must be a real number. Int(2.6) – returns 2.

## Ln

Description Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Ln() is the inverse of the Exp() function. Ln(86) – returns 4.454347.

## Log

Description Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify. The first input is the number and the second is the base (if omitted base 10 used). Log(100) – returns 2.

## Log10

Description Returns the base 10 logarithm of a number. Log10(86) – returns 1.934498451.

## Mod

Description Returns the remainder after first argument is divided by the second argument. The second argument must not be 0. Mod(27,5) – returns 2.

## Odd

Description Returns a number rounded up to the nearest odd integer. The input must be a real number. Odd always rounds away from zero. Odd(1.5) – returns 3.

## Pi

Description Returns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits. Ex. Pi() – returns 3.14159265358979.

## Power

Description Returns the result of the first argument raised to the second argument. The ` ^ ` operator may be used instead of this function. Power(5,2) – returns 25.

## Product

Description Returns the product of the arguments. The `*` operator may be used in place of this function.Arguments must be numbers, cell references or text representations of numbers. Product(5,2) – returns 10. Also 5 * 2 – returns 10.

## Quotient

Description Returns the integer portion of a division. The `/` operator may be used in place of this function.This function discards the remainder of the division. Quotient(5,2) – returns 2.

## Rand

Description Returns an evenly-distributed random number between 0 and 1 (inclusive). To generate a random real number between a and b, use: RAND()*(b-a)+a. Rand() – returns a random number between 0 and 1.

## Round

Description Returns a rounded number. Takes one or two input:1. The number to round. 2.  The number of decimal places desired. Round(5.236, 2) – returns 5.24

## Sin

Description Returns the sine of the given angle. The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/Pi() or use the Degrees() function. Sin(1.047) – returns .0865926611287823.

## Sinh

Description Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. Sinh(4) – returns 27.1899171971278.

## Sqrt

Description Returns the positive square root of the argument. If the input is negative Sqrt returns the error #NUM!. Sqrt(25) – returns 5.

## Tan

Description Returns the tangent of the given angle. The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/PI() or use the DEGREES function. Tan(.785) – returns .99920.

## Tanh

Description Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. Tanh(-2) – returns .96403.

## Truncate

Description Truncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of the number. INT and TRUNC are different only when using negative numbers: TRUNC (-4.3) returns -4, but INT (-4.3) returns -5 because -5 is the lower number. Truncate(9.9) – returns 9.