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Arithmetic and Geometric Functions

Basic mathematical functions, as well as number field manipulation like truncation and rounding.

Abs

DescriptionReturns the absolute value of a number.
Remark 
Example Abs(-23.1) – returns 23.1.

Acos

DescriptionReturns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number.
RemarkThe input must be from -1 to 1.

The returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/Pi() or use the Degrees() function.

Example Acos(-.231) – returns 1.80390168255052.

Acosh

DescriptionReturns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the given number.
RemarksThe input must be a real number greater than or equal to 1.
Example Acosh(10) – returns 2.993223.

Asin

DescriptionReturns the arcsine of the given number in radians, in the range -Pi/2 to Pi/2.
RemarksThe input is the sine of the angle you want and must be in the range from -1 to 1.
Example Asin(-0.5) – returns 0.5236.

Asinh

DescriptionReturns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
RemarksThe input can be any real number.
ExampleEx. Asinh(-2.5) – returns -1.64723.

Atan

DescriptionReturns the arctangent, inverse tangent of a number.
RemarksThe input can be any real number.

Atan returns an angle given in radians in the range -Pi/2 to Pi/2.

Example Atan(1) – returns 0.785398 (pi/4).

Atan2

DescriptionReturns the angle from the x-axis to a line containing the origin (0, 0) and a point with coordinates (x,y).
RemarksThe input requires two values, the x and y coordinates.

Note

If both x and y = 0, Atan2() returns the error #Div/0!.

A negative result represents a clockwise angle.

Example Atan2(1, 1) – returns 0.785398 (pi/4).

Atanh

DescriptionReturns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.
RemarksThe input must be from -1 to 1.
Example Atanh(.76159416) – returns 1 (approximately).

Ceiling

DescriptionReturns the number rounded up away from zero to the nearest multiple of significance, or the error #VALUE! if the argument is not a number.
RemarksThe input requires two values, the number to be rounded and the multiple of significance.

Regardless of the sign of number, a value is rounded up when adjusted away from zero.

Example Ceiling(4.42,.05) – returns 4.45.

Cos

DescriptionReturns the cosine, of an angle in radians.
RemarksThe returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/Pi() or use the Degrees() function.
Example Cos(1.047) – returns 0.500171.

Cosh

DescriptionReturns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
Example Cos(4) – returns 27.30823.

Even

DescriptionReturns a number rounded up to the nearest even integer, or the error message #VALUE! if the argument is not a number.
RemarksRegardless of the sign of number, a value is rounded away from zero.
Example Even(1.5) – returns 2.

Exp

DescriptionReturns e raised to the power of the input.
RemarksExp is the inverse of Ln, the natural logarithm.
Example Exp(1) – returns 2.718282 (the approximate value of e).

Fixed

DescriptionReturns the first argument rounded to the number of decimal places specified in the second argument.
RemarksTakes three arguments:

1. The number you want to round.
2. The number of digits to the right of the decimal to include.
3. (Optional) TRUE/FALSE whether to omit commas. The default is FALSE (includes commas as normal).

Example Fixed(1234.5678, 2) – returns 1,234.56.

Floor

DescriptionRounds the number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple of significance.
RemarksThe input requires two values, the number to be rounded, and the multiple of significance.

Regardless of the sign of number, a value is down toward zero.

NOTE. If the argument is non-numeric, then Floor returns the error #VALUE!

Example Floor(2.6, .5) – returns 2.5.

GlobalNumericFormat

DescriptionReturns a numeric string value whose format is based on the session format.
RemarksOnly accepts numeric values as input.
If Null(), DbNull() or a data field that is null is passed as the argument, the function returns Null().
Example GlobalNumericFormat({Region.Population})- returns the value based on the session format.

Int

DescriptionRounds a number down to the nearest integer.
RemarksThe input must be a real number.
Example Int(2.6) – returns 2.

Ln

DescriptionReturns the natural logarithm of a number.
RemarksLn() is the inverse of the Exp() function.
Example Ln(86) – returns 4.454347.

Log

DescriptionReturns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify.
RemarksThe first input is the number and the second is the base (if omitted base 10 used).
Example Log(100) – returns 2.

Log10

DescriptionReturns the base 10 logarithm of a number.
Remarks 
Example Log10(86) – returns 1.934498451.

Mod

DescriptionReturns the remainder after first argument is divided by the second argument.
RemarksThe second argument must not be 0.
Example Mod(27,5) – returns 2.

Odd

DescriptionReturns a number rounded up to the nearest odd integer.
RemarksThe input must be a real number. Odd always rounds away from zero.
Example Odd(1.5) – returns 3.

Pi

DescriptionReturns the number 3.14159265358979, the mathematical constant pi, accurate to 15 digits.
Remarks 
ExampleEx. Pi() – returns 3.14159265358979.

Power

DescriptionReturns the result of the first argument raised to the second argument.
RemarksThe ^ operator may be used instead of this function.
ExamplePower(5,2) – returns 25.

Product

DescriptionReturns the product of the arguments.
RemarksThe * operator may be used in place of this function.

Arguments must be numbers, cell references or text representations of numbers.

Example Product(5,2) – returns 10. Also 5 * 2 – returns 10.

Quotient

DescriptionReturns the integer portion of a division.
RemarksThe / operator may be used in place of this function.

This function discards the remainder of the division.

Example Quotient(5,2) – returns 2.

Rand

DescriptionReturns an evenly-distributed random number between 0 and 1 (inclusive).
RemarksTo generate a random real number between a and b, use: RAND()*(b-a)+a.
Example Rand() – returns a random number between 0 and 1.

Round

DescriptionReturns a rounded number.
RemarksTakes one or two input:

1. The number to round.
2.  The number of decimal places desired.

Example Round(5.236, 2) – returns 5.24

Sin

DescriptionReturns the sine of the given angle.
RemarksThe returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/Pi() or use the Degrees() function.
Example Sin(1.047) – returns .0865926611287823.

Sinh

DescriptionReturns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
Remarks 
Example Sinh(4) – returns 27.1899171971278.

Sqrt

DescriptionReturns the positive square root of the argument.
RemarksIf the input is negative Sqrt returns the error #NUM!.
Example Sqrt(25) – returns 5.

Tan

DescriptionReturns the tangent of the given angle.
RemarksThe returned angle is given in radians in the range 0 (zero) to pi. If you want to convert the result from radians to degrees, then multiply it by 180/PI() or use the DEGREES function.
Example Tan(.785) – returns .99920.

Tanh

DescriptionReturns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
Remarks 
Example Tanh(-2) – returns .96403.

Truncate

DescriptionTruncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of the number.
RemarksINT and TRUNC are different only when using negative numbers: TRUNC (-4.3) returns -4, but INT (-4.3) returns -5 because -5 is the lower number.
Example Truncate(9.9) – returns 9.
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